Luciana Bento

Américas podem perder 40% de sua biodiversidade original até 2050, diz relatório | Natureza

Se nada for feito, as Américas perderão 40% da sua biodiversidade original até 2050. O dado é de quatro relatórios elaborados por 550 cientistas de 100 países para a IPBES (Plataforma Intergovernamental sobre Biodiversidade e Serviços dos Ecossistemas). Foram três anos de trabalho, cujo resultado foi lançado nesta sexta-feira (23) em evento de biodiversidade na Colômbia.

Parte dessa perda nas Américas — não toda — pode ser revertida. Segundo o documento, se os três passos para a sustentabilidade forem aplicados, a perda de biodiversidade cai para 35%. A ideia de sustentabilidade é construída em três pilares: econômico, ambiental e social. De modo geral, o conceito é que a harmonia entre essas categorias deve ser alcançada para que o planeta e a natureza tenham equilíbrio.

Segundo o levantamento, o valor econômico da natureza nas Américas é estimado em US$ 24 trilhões por ano — o equivalente ao PIB da região. No entanto, dois terços dessas contribuições estão em declínio, com mudanças climáticas induzidas pelo homem, poluição e a superexploração de recursos naturais.

Um outro ponto destacado do relatório é a dissolução da cultura indígena — mais de 60% das línguas das Américas estão ameaçadas ou desaparecendo. Esse fato tem relação direta com a natureza, já que essas comunidaes contribuíam para a proteção da biodiversidade.

Contudo, a perda de biodiversidade não é uma particularidade da América, aponta o relatório. Todas as formas de vida continuam a diminuir em todas as regiões do mundo — significativamente reduzindo a capacidade da natureza de contribuir para o bem-estar da humanidade.

Bem-estar da humanidade em risco

O relatório conclui que, com a biodiversidade em risco em todo o planeta, também o bem-estar da humanidade está ameaçado. De acordo com especialistas, essa tendência coloca em risco as economias, os meios de subsistência, a segurança alimentar e a qualidade de vida das pessoas em todos os lugares.

Na África, o relatório aponta que em torno de metade das espécies de pássaros estarão extintas em 2100. Os lagos africanos também perderão 30% da sua contribuição para economia. O relatório aponta que 500 mil quilômetros do solo africano já estão degrados pela superexploração de recursos naturais.

O documento cita a Ásia como bom exemplo. Nos últimos 25 anos, as áreas marinhas protegidas na região aumentaram quase 14% e a área terrestre protegida aumentou 0,3%. A cobertura florestal aumentou em 2,5%, com os maiores aumentos no nordeste da Ásia (22,9%) e no sul da Ásia (5,8%). Há preocupações, no entanto, que essas iniciativas sejam insuficientes.

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Luciana Bento

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