Luciana Bento

Homem diagnosticado com ‘pior caso’ de supergonorreia do mundo acende alerta em médicos | Bem Estar

A gonorreia é causada pela bacteria Neisseria (Foto: CNRI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY)A gonorreia é causada pela bacteria Neisseria (Foto: CNRI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY)

A gonorreia é causada pela bacteria Neisseria (Foto: CNRI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY)

A Organização Mundial da Saúde já havia alertado para a aparição de um perigoso tipo de gonorreia resistente a antibióticos. Agora, um grupo de médicos britânicos anunciou o caso “mais grave” já detectado no mundo dessa doença sexualmente transmissível.

O Serviço de Saúde do Reino Unido (NHS, na sigla em inglês) explicou que o paciente é um homem que vivia uma relação estável com uma parceira, mas se contagiou com a “superbactéria” no início do ano quando teve um caso com uma mulher no sudeste da Ásia.

Ao aplicar o tratamento tradicional contra a doença – uma combinação de azitromicina e ceftriaxona – os especialistas constataram que o homem não respondia aos antibióticos.

“Esta é a primeira vez que um paciente apresenta resistência a esses medicamentos e à maioria de outros antibióticos frequentemente usados”, afirmou a médica Gwenda Hughes.

Até o momento não foram identificadas outras pessoas com infecções semelhantes, mas há uma investigação em curso do serviço de saúde britânico.

Funcionários de saúde estão tentando rastrear pessoas que tiveram relações sexuais com o paciente para conter a possível propagação da doença.

Testes realizados com o homem sugerem que apenas um tipo de antibiótico é capaz de curá-lo, mas ainda é preciso aguardar algumas semanas para verificar se o remédio realmente terá o efeito esperado.

Sexo oral e abandono do preservativo

Em julho do ano passado, um estudo da OMS revelou que o sexo oral estava produzindo uma perigosa forma de gonorreia, e o declínio no uso da camisinha está ajudando a espalhar a doença.

A entidade alertou que a gonorreia está atualmente muito mais difícil de tratar, porque a infecção sexualmente transmitida (IST) está rapidamente desenvolvendo resistência a antibióticos.

A gonorreia pode infectar os órgãos genitais, o reto e a garganta, mas a forma da doença que mais preocupa agentes de saúde é essa última.

Conforme a OMS, a gonorreia na garganta aumenta as chances de o micro-organismo desenvolver resistência a antibióticos, já que estes medicamentos são frequentemente administrados em menor dosagem para tratar infecções nesta área do corpo repleta de bactérias. Algumas dessas bactérias acabam desenvolvendo resistência às drogas.

A gonorreia é uma doença sexualmente transmissível causada pela bactéria Neisseria gonorrhoea. A infecção se espalha através do sexo desprotegido, tanto vaginal, quanto oral e anal.

Os sintomas podem incluir uma secreção verde ou amarela a partir dos órgãos sexuais, dor ao urinar e sangramentos esporádicos. Infecções não tratadas podem levar a infertilidade, doença inflamatória pélvica e podem ser transmitidas para o bebê durante a gravidez.

Entre os infectados, uma média de um a cada dez homens heterossexuais e de três em quatros mulheres e homens homossexuais não apresentam sintomas facilmente reconhecíveis.

Não é a primeira vez que um tipo de gonorreia resistente a medicamentos causa comoção na comunidade médica.

Também no Reino Unido, em 2015, foi detectado um tipo resistente à azitromicina. Mas os especialistas asseguram que o caso do homem internado atualmente é ainda “mais alarmante”.

Olwen Williams, presidente da Associação Britânica para a Saúde Sexual, disse que a aparição desta nova “supergonorreia” é “muito preocupante” e mostra um “desenvolvimento significativo” da bactéria que causa a doença.

A OMS está cobrando que países monitorem a dispersão da gonorreia resistente e invistam em novas drogas.

“A situação é bastante sombria”, comentou Manica Balasegaram, da Parceria Global de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Antibióticos.

“Há apenas três drogas sendo produzidas e não há garantia de que alguma vá, de fato, funcionar”.

E, segundo a OMS, serão necessárias vacinas para interromper a dispersão da gonorreia.

“Desde a introdução da penicilina, que garante uma cura rápida e confiável, a gonorreia desenvolveu resistência a todos os antibióticos”, explicou Richard Stabler, da Escola de Londres de Higiene e Medicina Tropical.

“Nos últimos 15 anos, a terapia precisou ser trocada três vezes por conta do aumento das taxas de resistência no mundo. Estamos agora num ponto em que estamos usando as drogas como último recurso, mas há sinais preocupantes de falha no tratamento devido a cepas resistentes.”

Fonte G1

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