Luciana Bento

O que fazer diante da ‘aposentadoria’ inesperada | Longevidade: modo de usar

Talvez você tivesse planejado parar de trabalhar aos 60, 62 ou 65. Só que, de uma hora para a outra, se vê sem trabalho. Nos EUA, o país das estatísticas, uma pesquisa realizada em 2017 pelo Employee Benefits Research Institute mostrou que 48% das pessoas abreviam sua permanência no mercado de trabalho por causa de problemas de saúde ou porque foram demitidas. Uma “aposentadoria” forçada é duplamente negativa: encurta suas projeções de poupança e ainda pode forçá-lo a fazer retiradas antes do planejado. A primeira providência é mergulhar de cabeça num diagnóstico das suas finanças. Vamos supor, por exemplo, que você tenha tido a chance de economizar R$ 1 milhão. Se precisar de uma retirada mensal de R$ 5 mil para complementar a aposentadoria do INSS, seja conservador e calcule uma taxa de juros real líquida de 0,2% ao mês – ainda há quem alimente fantasias de rendimento mensal de 1%, mas isso não existe, ainda mais com a queda da taxa de juros. Se ela aumentar, você se beneficia, mas é melhor não arriscar. Aquela poupança de R$ 1 milhão deverá durar pouco mais de 20 anos; portanto, se sua expectativa de vida for maior, vai precisar aumentar o capital acumulado ou diminuir o valor das retiradas mensais.

O passo seguinte é redesenhar seu orçamento realisticamente. Você precisa mapear todos os gastos, desde os indispensáveis até aqueles que parecem importantes, mas não resistem a uma análise mais criteriosa. Já parou, por exemplo, para pensar quanto custa manter um carro? Seguro, revisão, IPVA, estacionamento… Considere se mudar para um local com aluguel mais barato. Ou vender o imóvel e ir para um menor, aplicando a diferença. Seja severo com as pequenas despesas arbitrárias que fazem o dinheiro escoar ralo abaixo: um chope com os amigos, uma peça de roupa em liquidação mas da qual você não precisa. Em hipótese alguma entre no círculo vicioso do cheque especial e dos juros dos cartões de crédito. Ainda vai ficar faltando? Então, além de buscar uma recolocação no mercado, enquanto seu currículo está “fresquinho”, é hora de identificar novas fontes de renda: um hobby, como cozinhar ou fazer artesanato, pode se transformar numa atividade profissional. Ou sua formação em TI pode ser canalizada para dar assistência a quem tem problemas com os computadores em casa. Use sua rede de parentes e conhecidos para divulgar seus serviços.

Esse blog já mostrou como, inclusive, não depender da previdência. No livro “4 dimensões de uma vida em equilíbrio”, os autores Denise Hills, Jurandir Macedo e Martin Iglesias usaram quatro números para medir a saúde do dinheiro guardado ao longo da vida: 1-3-6-9. O número 1 seria o valor da poupança recomendável para uma pessoa com 35 anos: nessa idade, o ideal seria ter o equivalente a um ano de salário em algum tipo de investimento. O número 3 seria o valor de poupança para quem chegasse aos 45 anos: três anos de salário. Aos 55 anos, seriam seis anos de salário e, aos 65 anos, nove anos de salário – o que permitiria a tão sonhada segurança. Resumo da ópera: quanto antes começar, melhor.

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Luciana Bento

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